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Preliminary Environment Previous Question Paper

paper -2016

1. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East
(b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change
(c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
(d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals

2. What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’?
1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive inter-national partnerships.
2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the
allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions. 3. It is committed to bottom-up approach,
encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification. Select the correct answer using
the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. In which of the following regions of India are you most likely to come across the `Great Indian Hornbill’
in its natural habitat?

(a) Sand deserts of northwest India
(b) Higher Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir
(c) Salt marshes of western Gujarat
(d) Western Ghats

4. Consider the following pairs :
Terms sometimes Their origin seen in the news
1. Annex—I Countries : Cartagena Protocol
2. Certified Emissions Reductions : Nagoya Protocol
3. Clean Development Mechanism : Kyoto Protocol Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only @
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Which of the following best describes/ describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?
1. Incorporating environment al benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the ‘green accounting’
2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future
3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

6. What is/are unique about ‘Kharai camel’, a breed found in India?
1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometres in seawater.
2. It survives by grazing on mangroves.
3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

7. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant
which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which
part of India has it been discovered?

(a) Andaman Islands
(b) Anaimalai Forests
(c) Maikala Hills
(d) Tropical rain forests of northeast

8. With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’,
which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.
2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.
3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize,
demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

9. Which of the following statements is/are correct? Proper design and effective implementation
of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to
1. protection of biodiversity
2. resilience of forest ecosystems
3. poverty reduction Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

10. What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’?

(a) It is an international accounting tool for government and business
leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions
(b) It is an initiative of the United Nations to offer financial incentives to
developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies
(c) It is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of
the United Nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022
(d) It is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the World Bank

11. With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news,
consider the following statements :
1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development
2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

12. ‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’,
sometimes seen in the news, are related to

(a) constitutional reforms
(b) Ganga Action Plan
(c) linking of rivers
(d) protection of Western Ghats

13. On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label?
1. Ceiling fans
2. Electric geysers
3. Tubular fluorescent lamps
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

14. Consider the following statements:
(1) The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
(2) The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

15. In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered
in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Carbon monoxide
3. Nitrogen dioxide
4. Sulfur dioxide
5. Methane
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

16. With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015,
which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average
global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2 °C or even 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to
donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

17. Consider the following statements:
1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

paper -2015

1. Which one of the following is the best description of the term ‘ecosystem?

(a) A community of organisms interacting with one another
(b) That part of the Earth which is inhabited by living organisms
(c) A community of organisms together with the environment in which they live
(d) The flora and fauna of a geographical area

2. With reference to an organization known as ‘BirdLife International’, which of the following
statements is/are correct?
1. It is a Global Partnership of Conservation Organizations.
2. The concept of biodiversity hotspots’ originated from this organization.
3. It identifies the sites known/ referred to as ‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas’.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. With reference to the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA), which
of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a Public Limited Government Company.
2. It is a Non-Banking Financial Company.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Which of the following National Parks is unique in being a swamp with floating vegetation that
supports a rich biodiversity?

(a) Bhitarkanika National Park
(b) Keibul Lamjao National Park’
(c) Keoladeo Ghana National Park
(d) Sultanpur National Park

5. With reference to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
(IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora (CITES), which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. IUCN is an organ of the United Nations and CITES is an international agreement between
2. IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural
3. CITES is legally binding on the States that have joined it, but this Convention does not take
the place of national laws.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

6. With reference to ‘dugong’, a mammal found in India, which of the following statements is/are
1. It is a herbivorous marine animal.
2. It is found along the entire coast of India.
3. It is given legal protection under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 3 only

7. Which one of the following is the national aquatic animal of India?

(a) Saltwater crocodile
(b) Olive ridley turtle
(c) Gangetic dolphin
(d) Gharial

8. Which one of the following is associated with the issue of control and phasing out of the use of
ozone-depleting substances?

(a) Bretton Woods Conference
(b) Montreal Protocol
(c) Kyoto Protocol
(d) Nagoya Protocol

9. Which of the following statements regarding ‘Green Climate Fund’ is/are correct?
1. It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to
counter climate change.
2. It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither I nor 2

10. ‘BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustain­able Forest Landscapes’ is managed by the

(a) Asian Development Bank
(b) International Monetary Fund
(c) United Nations Environment Programme
(d) World Bank

11. The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the

(a) Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
(b) Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
(c) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
(d) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

12. In a particular region in India, the local people train the roots of living trees into robust bridges
across the streams. As the time passes, these bridges become stronger. These unique living root
bridges’ are found in

(a) Meghalaya
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Jharkhand
(d) Tamil Nadu

13. With reference to ‘Forest Carbon Partnership Facility’, which of the following statements is/are
1. It is a global partnership of governments. businesses, civil society and indigenous peoples.
2. It provides financial aid to universities, individual scientists and institutions involved in
scientific forestry research to develop eco-friendly and climate adaptation technologies for
sustainable forest management.
3. It assists the countries in their ‘REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation+)’ efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

paper -2014

1. Consider the following international agreements:
1. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
3. The World Heritage Convention
Which of the above has / have a bearing on the biodiversity?

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only,
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2. and 3

2. If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?

(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result
of human interference.
(b) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a law to prohibit any human activity within five kilo
metres from the edge of the wetland
(c) The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its
vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed
(d) It is given the status of ‘World Heritage Site’

3. With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), consider the following statements :
1. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
2. It strives to conserve nature through action­based research, education and public awareness.
3. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only @@@
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

(a) It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change’
(b) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level
(c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries
with specific aim to protect their environment.
(d) Both (a) and (b)

5. Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges RiverDolphins?
1. Construction of dams and barrages on rivers
2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers
3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally
4. Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop­fields in the vicinity of rivers

Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

6. Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?
1. Volcanic action
2. Respiration
3. Photosynthesis
4. Decay of organic matter
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

7. If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to
seize the insects, disturbed by their movement through grasses.
Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?
1. Painted Stork
2. Common Myna
3. Black­necked Crane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only

8. With reference to ‘Eco­Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Eco­Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 .
2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco­Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities, in those
zones except agriculture.
Select the correct answer using the code given below. 

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

9. Consider the following statements:
1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct? 

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

10. Consider the following pairs :
     Wetlands                                      Confluence of rivers
1. Harike Wetlands                            : Confluence of Beas and Satluj/Sutlej
2. Keoladeo Ghana National Park    :Confluence of Banas and Chambal
3. Kolleru Lake                               :Confluence of Musi and Krishna

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

11. The scientific view is that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2 °C above preindustrial
level. If the global temperature increases beyond 3 °C above the pre­industrial level, what can
be its possible impact/impacts on the world?
1. Terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source
2. Widespread coral mortality will occur.
3. All the global wetlands will permanently disappear.
4.Cultivation of cereals will not be possible anywhere in the world.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

12. The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life
is the establishment of

(a) biosphere reserves
(b) botanical gardens
(c) national parks
(d) wildlife sanctuaries

12. Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?
1. Oxides of sulphur
2. Oxides of nitrogen
3. Carbon monoxide
4. Carbon dioxide
Select the correct answer using the code given below. 

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1,2, 3 and 4

paper -2013

1. Under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest
Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, who shall be
the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature
and extent of individual or community forest rights or both?

(a) State Forest Department
(b) District Collector/Deputy Commissioner
(c) Tahsildar /Block Development Officer / Mandai Revenue Officer
(d) Gram Sabha

2. Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environment by 

(a) carbon dioxide and nitrogen
(b) carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
(c) ozone and carbon dioxide
(d) nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide

3. With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the
following statements :
1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms
feed upon each other.
2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.
3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are
eaten by others.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct? 

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None

4. In which of the following States is lion­tailed macaque found
in its natural habitat?
1. Tamil Nadu
2. Kerala
3. Karnataka
4. Andhra Pradesh
Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

5. Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism,
 but also its functional role in the community of organisms?

(a) Ecotone
(b) Ecological niche
(c) Habitat
(d) Home range

6. Photochemical smog is a resultant of the reaction among

(a) NO2, 03 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight
(b) CO, 02 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight
(c) CO, CO2 and N02 at low temperature
(d) High concentration of N02, O3 and CO in the evening

7. Consider the following
1. Star tortoise
2. Monitor lizard
3. Pygmy hog
4. Spider monkey
Which of the above found in India?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

8. In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses as a part
of an ecological succession because of

(a) insects and fungi
(b) limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients
(c) water limits and fire
(d) None of the above

9. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of
ecosystems in the order of decreasing productivity?

(a) Oceans, lakes, grasslands, mangroves
(b) Mangroves, oceans, grasslands, lakes
(c) Mangroves, grasslands, lakes, oceans
(d) Oceans, mangroves, lakes, grasslands

10. Consider the following fauna of India:

2.Leatherback turtle
3.Swamp deer
Which of the above is/are endangered?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None

11. Which of the following leaf modifications occurs/occur in
desert areas to inhibit water loss?
1. Hard and waxy leaves
2. Tiny leaves or no leaves
3. Thorns instead of leaves
Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

12. With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of
the following kinds of organism is / are known as decomposer
1. Virus
2. Fungi
3. Bacteria 

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

paper -2012

1. How does National Biodiversity Authority help in protecting the
Indian agriculture?
1. NBA checks the biopairacy and protects the indigenous and
traditional genetic resources.
2. NBA directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on
genetic modification of crop plants.
3 Applications for intellectual property rights related to genetic/
biological resources can not be made without the approval of NBA.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

a 1
b 2 and 3 only
c 1 and 3 only
d 1, 2 and 3

2. If national water mission is properly and completely implemented
how will it impact the country?
1 Part of the water needs of urban areas will be met through
recycling of waste water.
2 The water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate
alternative sources of water will be met by adopting appropriate
technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.
3. All the rivers of Himalayan origin will be linked to the rivers of
peninsular India
4. The expenses incurred by farmers for digging bore wells and for
installing motors and pump sets to draw groundwater will be
completely reimbursed by the Government.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below

a 1 only
b 1 and 2 only
c 3 and 4 only
d 1, 2, 3 and 4

3. Chlorofluorocarbons, known as ozone depleting substances are
1. In the production of plastic foams
2 in the production of tubeless tyres
3. In cleaning certain electronic components
4. As pressurizing agents in aerosol cans
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a 1,2 and 3 only
b 4 only
c 1, 3 and 4 only
d 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. Government of India encourages the cultivation of ‘sea
buckthorn’. What is the importance of this plant?
1. It helps in controlling soil erosion and in preventing desertification.
2. It is a rich source of biodiesel.
3. It has nutritional value and is well­adapted to live in cold areas of
high altitudes.
4. Its timber is of great commercial value.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2, 3 and 4 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

5. With reference to the wetlands of India, consider the following
1. The country’s total geographical area under the category of
wetlands is recorded more in Gujrat as Compared to other states
2. In India, the total geographical area of coastal wetlands is larger
than that of inland wetlands
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)      1 only
b)      2 only
c)       Both 1 and 2
d)      Neither 1 nor 2

6. The increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the air is slowly
raising the temperature of the atmosphere, because it absorbs

a)  the water vapour of the air and retains its heat
b)  the UV part of the solar radiation
c) all the solar radiations
d)  the infrared part of the solar radiation

7. Other than resistance to pests, what are the prospects for which
genetically engineered plants have been created?

1. To enable them to withstand drought
2. To increase the nutritive value of the produce
3. To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis in spaceships and
space stations
4. To increase their shelf life

8. Consider the following protected areas:
1. Bandipur
2. Bhitarkanika
3. Manas
4. Sunderbans
Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?

a) 1 and 2 only
b) 1, 3 and 4 only
c) 2, 3 and 4 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

9. In which one among the following categories of protected areas
in India are local people not allowed to collect and use the biomass?

a Biosphere reserves
b National parks
c Wetlands declared under Ramsar convention
d Wildlife sanctuaries

10. Which one of the following groups of animals belongs to the
category of endangered species?

a. Great Indian bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass
b. Kashmir Stag, Cheetah, Blue Bull, GIB
c. Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey, Saras (Crane)
d. Lion Tailed Macaque, Blue Bull, Hanuman Langur, Cheetah

11. The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following
major categories of ecosystem services­provisioning, supporting,
regulating, preserving and cultural. Which one of the following is
supporting service?

a) Production of food and water
b) Control of climate and disease
c) Nutrient Cycling and crop pollinator
d) Maintenance of diversity

12. Consider the following:
1. Black necked crane
2. Cheetah
3. Flying squirrel
4. Snow leopard
Which of the above are naturally found in India?

a) 1, 2 and 3 only
b) 1, 3 and 4 only
c) 2 and 4 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

13. Consider the following agricultural practices:
1. Contour bunding
2. Relay cropping
3. Zero tillage
In the context of global climate change, which of the above
helps/help in carbon sequestration/ storage in the soil?

a) 1 and 2 only
b) 3 only
c) 1, 2 and 3
d) None of them

14. What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely
destroyed for some reason?
1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.
2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected.
3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3

15. Vultures used to be very common in Indian countryside some
years ago are rarely seen nowadays. This is attributed to

a) the destruction of their nesting sites by new invasive species
b) a drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle
c) Scarcity of food available to them
d) a widespread, persistant and fatal disease among them

paper -2011

1. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following
ways :
1. Soil formation.
2. Prevention of soil erosion.
3. Recycling of waste.
4. Pollination of crops[2].
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a) 1,2,and 3 only.
(b) 2,3 and 4 only
(c)  1 and 4 only.
(d) 1,2,3 and 4  only.

2.    The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a
cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this
hole ?

(a)    Presence of prominent tropo­spheric turbulence; and inflow of
(b)    Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric clouds;
and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons.
(c)    Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of
methane and chlorofluorocarbons.
(d)    Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming.

3.    Regarding “carbon credits’’ , which  one of the following
statements is not correct  ?

(a) The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the
Kyoto protocol[33]
(b) Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have
reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota.
(c) The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of
carbon dioxide emission.
(d) Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by
the united nations environment programs.

4.There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in
the seawater of India. What could be the causative factors for this
phenomenon ?

1.    Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.
2.    Run­off from the land during the monsoon.’
3.    Upwelling in the seas.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :

(a)    1 only.
(b)    1 and  2 only.
(c)    2  and 3 only.
(d)    1,2,and 3.

5. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian
animal species. The animal has no predators  in that area  but its
existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which
one of the following could be that animal ?
(a)    Indian wild buffalo.
(b)    Indian wild ass.
(c)    Indian wild boar.
(d)    Indian gazelle.

6. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian
animal species. The animal has no predators  in that area  but its
existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which
one of the following could be that animal ?

(a)    Indian wild buffalo.
(b)    Indian wild ass.
(c)    Indian wild boar .
(d)    Indian gazelle.

7. The “Red Books’’ published by the international union for
conservation of nature and natural resources (IUCN) contain lists of?
(a)    Endemic plant and animal  species  present in the biodiversity hotspots[46]
(b)    Threatened plant and animal species.
(c)    Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural
resources in various countries.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a)    1 and 3.
(b)    2 only.
(c)    2 and 3.
(d)    3 only.

8.    Three of the following criteria have contributed to the
recognition  of western  Ghats , Sri Lanka and Indo­Burma regions
as hotspots of biodiversity :
1.    Species richness.
2.    Vegetation density.
3.    Endemism.
4.    Ethno­botanical importance.
5.    Threat perception.
6.    Adaption of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions.
Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context ?

(a)    1,2, and 6.
(b)    2,4 and 6.
(c)    1,3 and 5.
(d)    3,4 and 6

9.    Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased
concentration  of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it
does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of  ?
1.    Its escape into the outer stratosphere.
2.    The photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.
3.    The trapping of air in the polar ice caps.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct   ?

(a)    1 and 2.
(b)    2 only.
(c)    2 and 3.
(d)    3 only.

10.    In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling
zones are important as they increase the marine productivity  by
bringing the  ?
1.    Decomposer microorganisms to the surface.
2.    Nutrients to the surface.
3.    Bottom­dwelling organisms to the surface.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct  ?

(a)    1 and 2.
(b)    2 only.
(c)    2 and 3.
(d)    3 only.

11.    With reference to India, consider the following central acts :
1.    Import and export (control) act, 1947.
2.    Mining, and mineral development (regulation) act, 1957.
3.    Customs act, 1962.
4.    Indian forest act, 1927.
Which of the above acts have relevance to/bearing on the
biodiversity conser­vation in the country ?

(a)    1 and 3 only.
(b)    2,3 and 4 only.
(c)    1,2,3 and 4.
(d)    None of the above acts.

12.    Consider the following :
1.    Photosynthesis.
2.    Respiration.
3.    Decay of organic matter.
4.    Volcanic action.
Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle[34] on
earth ?

(a)    1 and 4 only .
(b)    2 and  3 only .
(c)    2, 3 and 4 only.
(d)    1,2,3 and 4

paper -2010

1. Some species of plants are insectivorous. Why?

(a) Their growth in shady and dark places does not allow them to undertake sufficient
photosynthesis and thus they depend on insects for nutrition.
(b) They are adapted to grow in nitrogen deficient soils and thus depend on insects for
sufficient nitrogenous nutrition.
(c) They can not synthesize certain vitamins themselves and depend on the insects digested
by them.
(d) They have remained in that particular stage of evolution as living fossils, a link between
autotrophs and heterotrophs.

2. Consider the following statements:
1. The Taxus tree naturally found in the Himalayas.
2. The Taxus tree is listed in the Red Data Book.
3. A drug called ‘taxol’ is obtained from Taxus tree is effective against Parkinson’s disease.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. A pesticide which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon is sprayed on a food crop. The food chain
is: Food crop – Rat – Snake – Hawk. In this food chain, the highest concentration of the
pesticide would accumulate in which one of the following?

(a) Food crop
(b) Rat
(c) Snake
(d) Hawk

4. King Cobra is the only snake that makes its own nest. Why does it make its nest?

(a) It is a snake – eater and the nest helps attract other snakes.
(b) It is a viviparous snake and needs a nest to give birth to its offspring.
(c) It is an oviparous snake and lays its eggs in the nest and guards the nest until they are
(d) It is a large, cold blooded animal and needs a nest to hibernate in the cold season.

5. Excessive release of the pollutant carbon monoxide (CO), into the air may produce a
condition in which oxygen supply in the human body decreases. What causes this

(a) When inhaled into the human body, CO is converted into CO2.
(b) The inhaled CO has much higher affinity for haemoglobin as compared to oxygen.
(c) The inhaled CO destroys the chemical structure of haemoglobin.
(d) The inhaled CO adversely affects the respiratory centre in the brain.

6. The United Nations Framework Conventions on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an
international treaty drawn at :

(a) United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972.
(b) UN conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992.
(c) World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002.
(d) UN Climate Change Conference Copenhagen, 2009.

paper -2009

1. In the contest of Indian wild life, the flying fox is a:

A. Bat
B. Kite
C. Stork
D. Vulture

2. The Panda belongs to the same family as that of 

A. Bear
B. Cat
C. Dog
D. Rabbit

paper -2008

1. In which one of the following kids of organisms is the phenomenon found
wherein the female kills the male after copulation?

(a) Dragonfly
(b) Honeybee
(c) Spider
(d) Pit viper

2. For which one of the following snakes is the diet mainly composed of other

(a) Krait
(b) Russell’s viper
(c) Rattlesnake
(d) King cobra

3. Which one of the following is an insectivorous plant?

(a) Passion flower plant
(b) Pitcher plant
(c) Night queen
(d) Fl

4. Among the following, which one lays eggs anad does not produce young ones
directly ?

(a) Echidna
(b) kangaroo
(c) Porcupine
(d) Whale

5. Among the following , which one is not an ape ?

(a) Gibbon
(b) Gorilla
(c) Langur
(d) Orangutan

6. Consider the
(a) Rice fields              (b) Coal mining
(d) domestic animals    (d) Wetlands
Which of the above are sources of methane, a major greenhouse gas ?

(a)  1 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1,2 and 3 only
(d) 1,2,3 and 4

7. Which one of the following Union Ministries is implementing the Biodiesel
Mission (as Noida Ministry) ?

(a) Ministry of Agriculture
(b) Ministry of Science and Technology
(c) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(d) Ministry of Rural Development

paper -2007

1.How do most insects respire?

(a) Through skin
(b) Through gills
(c)  By lungs
(d) By tracheal system

paper -2005

1. Assertion (A):
Amoeba is reproduced by fission.
Reason (R):
All unicellular organisms are reproduced by asexual methods.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are individually true and R is the correct
explanation of A
(b) Both (A) and (R) are individually true and R is not the correct
explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

paper -2004

1. Consider the following statements:
1. Toothless mammals such as pangolins are not found in India.
2. Gibbon is the only ape found in India.
Which of the statements given above is are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

paper -2003

1. Consider the following statements:
1. The common blue green algae Spirogyra and Ulothrix are found
in both fresh water ponds and oceans.
2. The chameleon can look ahead with one eye, and at the same
time look behind with another.
Which of these statements is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Q91 Octopus is

(a) an arthropod
(b) an echinoderm
(c) a heimchordate
(d) a mollusc

paper -2002

1. Which one of the following statements is correct ?

(a) All echinoderms are viviparous
(b) Round worm has no circulatory system
(c) In bony fishes, swim bladder is usually present
(d) In cartilaginous fishes, fertilisation is internal

paper -2001

1. A class of animals known as Marsupials is a characteristic feature of

(a) Africa
(b) Australia
(c) South America
(d) South­East Asia

2. Consider the following statements :
I. Tapeworm is a hermaphrodite.
II. Round­worm has separate sexes.
III. Filaria is caused by a nematode.
IV. Guinea­worm is an annelid.

Which of these are correct ?
(a) I and II
(b) I, II and III
(c) III and IV
(d) II, III and IV

2.Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes
given below the Lists :
List I List II
(Bone) (Name)
I. Breast­bone (A) Clavicle
II. Collar­bone (B) Patella
III. Knee­cap (C) Scapula
IV. Shoulder blade (D) Sternum

(a) I­D, II­A, III­C, IV­B
(b) I­A, II­D, III­C, IV­B
(c) I­A, II­D, III­B, IV­C
(d) I­D, II­A, III­B, IV­C

paper -2000

Q. Within biological communities, some species are important in
determining the ability of a large number of other species to persist
in the community. Such species are called

(a) Keystone species
(b) Allopatric species
(c) Sympatric species
(d) Threatened species

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